Wet Processing-ll(note-3)

Water repellency:

Water repellency is a characteristic of textiles that describes the ability of a fabric to resist the penetration of water. It is a measure of the surface tension of a fabric, which determines the degree of wetting by water. Textiles that exhibit water repellency can resist the absorption of water and can therefore be used to make garments, outdoor gear, and other products that need to stay dry.

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The water repellency of a fabric can be measured by various techniques, such as the spray test or the hydrostatic head test. These tests determine the amount of water that a fabric can resist before it begins to absorb water. The level of water repellency can be enhanced through the use of chemical treatments or the incorporation of hydrophobic materials in the fabric structure. Water repellent fabrics are commonly used in applications where protection from rain, snow, or other forms of moisture is important.

Textile Finishing:

Textile finishing is the process of treating textile materials to improve their appearance, texture, performance, and functionality. Wet processing is a crucial part of textile finishing that involves various chemical and mechanical treatments in a liquid medium. In wet processing, textiles are subjected to various treatments such as desizing, scouring, bleaching, dyeing, printing, and finishing.

Textile finishing in wet processing can be achieved through various techniques such as padding, coating, spraying, and foaming. The most common types of wet finishing processes include:

  1. Mercerization: It is a treatment applied to cotton and other cellulosic fibers to improve their luster, strength, and dye uptake. The process involves treating the fabric with sodium hydroxide solution under tension, which causes the fibers to swell and become more receptive to dyes.
  2. Enzyme washing: It is a process used to soften and improve the feel of cotton and denim fabrics. The process involves treating the fabric with enzymes, which break down the fibers and create a softer hand feel.
  3. Anti-microbial finishing: It is a process used to prevent the growth of microorganisms on textiles. The process involves treating the fabric with anti-microbial agents, which inhibit the growth of bacteria and other microorganisms.
  4. Flame retardant finishing: It is a process used to make textiles resistant to flame and heat. The process involves treating the fabric with flame retardant chemicals, which prevent the fabric from igniting.
  5. Water-repellent finishing: It is a process used to make textiles water-resistant. The process involves treating the fabric with water-repellent agents, which create a barrier on the fabric surface that repels water.
  6. Stain-resistant finishing: It is a process used to make textiles resistant to stains. The process involves treating the fabric with stain-resistant agents, which prevent stains from penetrating the fabric.

In conclusion, textile finishing in wet processing plays a crucial role in enhancing the quality and functionality of textile materials. It involves various treatments that improve the appearance, texture, performance, and functionality of textiles

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